Thursday, February 20, 2020
Toyota Final Simulation Bus310 - Essay Example Here, the case study puts emphasis on the three organizational environments and how each contributed to the technological development. The success of every organization is highly dependent on such an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resource composition and how best they mobilize those internal resources. The invention of the simulator portrays Toyota as an organization which mobilizes its internal resources: finances, natural and human resources to better satisfy their customers (Liker & Meier, 2006). With the final simulation at hand, it is predictable that Toyota is destined to gain a huge internal environmental support since, whenever an organization comes up with a new landmark invention; such an organization is always motivated to do even more. A motivated human resource, for instance, is always characterized by creativity and innovation as well as working towards the achievement of the organizational goals. Toyota is one organization that can highly be credited for how it has matched its internal environment to its external environment. The near external environment is always characterized with those factors that an organization has little influence over as opposed to the internal resources (Liker & Meier, 2006). The vital factors in the near external environment include the customers and the suppliers whose contributions are essential to the success of any organization. For most entrepreneurs, it is the customers and the suppliers that a company should hold dear to their activities. It is very logical that an organization that does not pay attention to their customers have no future. In coming up with the perfect simulator, it is predictable that Toyota fully exploited their near external environment. The customers for instance influence a huge amount of organizational decisions depend highly on the feedback such an organization gets from its customers. In fully implementing the driving simulation technology, it is
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Exam questions - Essay Example Each division in the larger firm is responsible for the maximisation of its profits and production. The central office overlooks the other divisions with the primary responsibility for formulating the overall strategy for the entire business but not directly controlling the operations at the divisional levels. Large firms have adopted the M-form as opposed to the traditional Unitary structure (U-form) in which the operations of the business are centrally managed with no independence given to any sub-division. While ChandlerÃ¢â¬â¢s multidivisional form advocates for growth through diversification across industries, markets and products, WilliamsonÃ¢â¬â¢s M-form does not make any reference to diversification. The multidivisional form explained by Chandler supports the delegation of complete power and authority to the divisions while that of Williamson is for the retention of control by the management at the major company. The advantage of the M-form over other divisional structures is based on its ability to combine the economies of scale and different brand benefits of a large collection while maintaining the operational flexibility. It provides the central optimisation level within a company (Besanko, 2010). Unlike other divisional structures, the M-form solves the dilemma of the differences observable in profit maximisation strategies, business needs, and output across the divisions when organisations grow to be too large. Each group, with its independence and flexibility, can be kept in the centralised profit maximisation expectation. Williamson proposes a perfect coordination between the general direction of the business and the daily operations of the divisions under the M-form structure. However, there lies a limitation on the wide adoption of the M-form that arises from WilliamsonÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements for this divisional structure. The largest
Monday, January 27, 2020
Moral And Ethical Role Of Government Philosophy Essay Ethics and morality form a central position in the functioning of the government. Under normal circumstances, it is the role of the government to ensure a just society where order and harmony exist. As a result the government has to establish and enforce ethical and moral standards so as to ensure that the society functions well. Decision making is the governments chief role. Therefore it must make ethical and moral considerations in order to make decisions that are in line with the welfare of the society. Ethics and morality are used interchangeably. The two terms are related in several ways. Nonetheless, there is an inconsequential dissimilarity linking the two. Most commonly is the fact that morality goes deeper than ethics in defining human behavior and conduct. Ethics refer to the standards that make the society a better place of all while morality provide for more deeper considerations that amount to religion and spirituality. In order for the government to ensure that ethical standards are adhered to, ethics and aspects of morality are entrenched into the law. This makes it conveniently possible to enforce ethical standards and ensure that all people conform to the law. However, certain aspects of ethics and morality cannot be made legal. This will make the society more complicated since certain morality aspects and ethics are perceptive. This brings into perspective the facet of belief and religion which formulates different people to hold diverse views on the concept of ethics and morality. The upshot is that, the government plays a significant role in enforcing ethics and morality. As a result it is expected that the leaders ensure that the society is just and orderly for all. The aim of this paper is to critically examine the role of the government in morality an ethics. To succeed in this endeavor, the paper will discuss different aspects of morality and ethics. Role of Government One of the central purposes of the government is to enforce the law. The law represents the will of the people who have their own cultural and ethical perceptions of reality. As a result the government enforces the ethical and moral values of the people it governs. In other words it can be rightly said that the government serves to accomplish the peoples perceptions of reality as represented in their ethical and moral values. This makes the role of the government more complex not forgetting that not all values of ethical and moral consideration can be enforced by the government. However, the government remains the prime custodian of peoples values. Ethics and moral values have a great influence on the operation of the society. It is therefore true that the government exercises control over the society. This is true in light of the task of enforcing laws. In order to get a better understanding of the role of the government as far as ethics and morality is concerned; more focus should be on the law (Preston Bishop 2000). The law is the governments instrument of power. To perform its functions, the government relies majorly on the law. On the other hand the law is perceived as being representative of the ethical, cultural and moral values of the people. Therefore as much as the law might not be the perfect tool of enforcing ethical and moral values, it remains the governments chief weapon against unprincipled practices and immorality. The law describes what is right and acceptable in society and therefore provides a blue print towards an ethical and just society. In order to affirm their quest for a just society, citizens are expected to adhere to the provisions of the law. Therefore, the law binds the society together bringing harmony among different people. Failure to conform to the law is perceived as breaking ethical standards established and is thus punishable. Therefore, the law is perceived as the peoples will to be enforced by the government. There are a lot of challenges the government faces in its ethical and moral roles. First and foremost are the different perceptions of ethics and morality. This is coupled by the practical reality that the law does not fully represent ethical and moral standards. Perceptions are a great threat to the governments role. This is due to the fact that certain parameters which are legal are sometimes perceived as violating ethical and moral standards. A good example is the issue of abortion. As much as abortion might be legalized, it still remains a debatable ethical issue. This is due to the fact that it is seen by some members in society as unethical. Other issues include divorce and promiscuity. These conflicts underline the fact that the law is not a sufficient tool of enforcing ethical and moral values. It underscores the failure of the government to ensure a just society through enforcing the law. Ethical and Social Obligations Ethics and a society are inseparable, due to the fact that ethical standards are the adhesive of a healthy society. Therefore there can never be a society without standards that define behavior and conduct. A just society can only exist in line with a set of values that represent the ethical and moral values of the people. A society on the other hand is governed by a group of leaders through the institution of government (Kizza, 2010). Therefore, it is obvious that it is the role of the government to ensure that the society is just and orderly. This is what is referred to as social obligations of the government. In essence the government is a tool of the society. It is established by the society to govern it and enforce laws that are deemed to represent the wishes, values and convictions of the people. The governments social obligations are nothing but the functions of ensuring that ethical and moral standards are adhered to accordingly. This involves the task of ensuring that the laws set represent the ethical and moral values of the people. Conversely, the government needs to go beyond the institutional role of enforcing laws to more welfare operations. This is line with the fact that the law in itself is inefficient as far as ensuring the enforcement of ethical and moral obligations is concerned. Decision Making A critical look at the origin of government points at the true essence of the institution. Several theories outline the origin of politics or government. Nevertheless, the contract of social theory is much relevance to the governments decision making role. Under the social contract theory, members of the society came together and surrendered their freedoms in exchange for order. In order to achieve this objective, the people established a government which was to govern the state on their behalf. Among the principal roles given of this institution was that of making decisions on behalf of the people (Cremer 2009). Therefore the governments most significant role is that of decision making. The role of making a decision is supposed to be in line with the interests and values of the society. This underscores the big role played by the government in ensuring a just society for all. Therefore in making a decision the government plays an important part in enforcing ethical and moral standards. Apart from enforcing the law which is perceived as the will of the people, the government has the authority to make decision that affect the functioning of the society. Therefore in making these decisions the government ought to put ethical and moral obligations in prime focus. In this role the aspect of public trust emanates. The government has been given the public trust which must be reflected in every decision it makes. Therefore public officials must make decisions that not only promote ethics and morality but also represent the same. In making decisions the government needs to be guided by two principal aspects. First and foremost is respect of the law. The law is the supreme guarantor of morality, ethics and justice. Therefore due importance should be granted to the law in the process of making decisions. Decisions that are contrary to the provisions of the law should be discouraged. The law should be the common denominator of all government decisions. This will protect the people from leaders with evil intentions. Another critical aspect of consideration is that of ethical consideration beyond the law. This should be interpreted in a positive manner to mean that the law should be upheld in high esteem but should not be the end of ethics. Certain aspects of morality and ethics are not entrenched in the law but should be upheld in decision making. This regards appointments and other aspects of governance. This calls for integrity on the part of state officials in the discharge of their duties. Need For Appropriate Actions Leadership is a delicate affair which involves a lot of aspects. Since leadership involves the tasks of vision, direction and governance a lot of care must be made to ensure that ethical and moral; standards do not take a back seat. The government is bestowed with a daunting task of ensuring order and justice in the society. This is to be achieved through the enforcement of laws that represent the ethical and moral values of the society. This is also done through the making of legal and ethical decisions. The government therefore plays a primary role in the whole concept of ethics and morality. Through its actions, decisions and operations the government has a lot of impact on the functioning of the society. There is need for appropriate actions on the part of the government so as not to undermine ethics and morality (Kiel Lennick, 2007). Since the success of a society depends on the manner in which ethical standards are adhered to, the government officials ought to be careful in th eir actions so as to promote a just and orderly society. It is against this background that governments need to put several measures in place so as to ensure that the aspect of ethics and morality plays an important role in its functions. This will result in a justly moral and ethical society which is what will make life better for the people. As far as the governments role in achieving justice and order in society is concerned, a number of considerations are necessary. Caution must be exercised in the process discharging the functions of the government. State officers ought to conduct their activities in manner that does not undermine ethical and moral values. To start with, it will be necessary to vet people before appointment to such positions. This will ensure that all those who get these positions are people of integrity. This will go a long way in ensuring that the role of the government in guaranteeing ethics and justice is not undermined by the quality of personnel in its ranks. Suggestions The ethical and moral role of the government is instrumental in ensuring justice and order in the society. Therefore it is upon the officials in the government to ensure that their actions and activities go in line which fostering harmony among the people. This will be achieved if all the laws are enforced in line with the peoples ethical and moral values as envisaged in the law. On top of these, the decision making arm of the government must be fully used to enhance ethical and moral values in the society. It will be against the purpose of ethics should state officials make illegal and unethical decisions. Apart from that state officials must be men and women of integrity so as not to compromise the values of the society. In order to succeed in this endeavor it will be appropriate for the government to classify its moral obligations into two. These are institutional duties and the social responsibilities. The former refers to the use of laws and structures of governance to enforce total adherence to moral and ethical values. This will call for the enactment of laws that represent the ethical and moral values of the people (Fisher 2003). Through the law, the government will ensure that there is justice and order in the society. Those who break the law should be liable for punishment. These will dissuade offenders and make society orderly and harmonious. Social responsibilities refer to those roles that affirm ethical values in the cultural set up. Through this arm, the government will set up and fund several organizations and commissions to cultivate tolerance, orderliness and ethics among the society. This will call for equity and equality so that all sections of the society feels taken care of. On to p of this is the decision making role f the government. The government should use its authority to make decisions in promoting justice, order and ethics. Conclusion The government is the chief custodian of morality and ethical values in the society. It is the role of the government to ensure that moral and ethical standards are maintained in the society so as to assure order and justice. The political system gives government the sole responsibility of ensuring stability, harmony and conformity in the society. It is along this line that the government plays an immense role in guaranteeing ethical and moral values. This role can be performed in many ways. Most commonly the enforcement focuses on the enactment of laws that represent the cultural and ethical values of the people. These laws are enforced so as to ensure conformity. Those who break the law are liable to punishment in accordance to the law. Through exercising the provisions of the law, the government achieves its objective of creating a just and orderly society. However, since ethics and morality are relative terms, not all aspects of ethics and morality can be entrenched into the law. This poses a challenge to the governments role of fulfilling ethical obligations. Therefore, it vital for the government to come up with other means of achieving justice and orderliness through ethics. Through its social obligations the government enforces ethical and moral standards in the society. This can be through its decision making arm and also through the establishment and funding of agencies and organizations that cultivate a culture of ethical values. The government also guarantees ethical values by granting freedom to the people to exercise their spiritual and religious convictions. Moral and ethical as pects have spiritual and cultural connotations, therefore through equality and freedom the government ensures justice in the society. The government plays a central role in ensuring ethics and morality in the society.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Gaius Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 BC. Although patrician descent, Caesar's family had not achieved real prominence. His father, also named Gaius Julius Caesar, was the brother-in-law of Gaius Marius and married Aurelia, who was connected with the prominent Aurelii family; he died about 85 BC, however, before reaching the consulship. In 84, Caesar married Cornelia, daughter of Marius's old partner Lucius Cornelius Cinna. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla ordered him to divorce her, he refused and escaped harm through the intervention of such people as his mother's relative, Gaius Aurelius Cotta. Caesar was then sent to collect a fleet from the Roman ally Nicomedes IV of Bithynia and was honored for conspicuous bravery at the siege of Mytilene. Returning home after Sulla's death , he unsuccessfully prosecuted two Sullans, Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella and Gaius Antonius Hibrida. He then left Rome for studies in Rhodes but was captured by pirates. After obtaining ransom, he recruited private troops, captured the pirates, and had them executed in. His studies on Rhodes were interrupted by the outbreak of war with Mithradates VI of Pontus, against who he gathered a force in 74. During a legateship to help Marcus Antonius Creticus fight piracy, Caesar was made a pontiff at Rome in 73 BC. After his military tribunate and possible service against Spartacus, he sided with those seeking power from outside the circle of nobles who dominated the Senate. He supported restoration of tribunician powers and the recall from exile of those who had supported Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in his revolt of 77. Caesar also advertised his Marian connections: by displaying Marius's effigies at his aunt Julia's funeral; through funeral orations for both Julia and his wife; and by the restoration of Marius' battle trophies on the Capitoline Hill. After a quaestorship in Spain, Caesar earned popularity among the Transpadane Gauls by supporting their agitation for Roman citizenship. He next married Pompeia, granddaughter of Sulla and relative of Pompey the Great, and evidence indicates that he supported important military assignments for Pompey in 67 and 66. As aedile in 65 BC, he achieved great popularity--and went into debt--by financing splendid games. He also probably cooperated with Marcus Licinius Crassus in an attempt to annex Egypt, in supporting Catiline for the consulship, and in promoting the land-distribution bill of Publius Servilius Rullus. In 64 BC, Caesar presided over trials of those who had committed murder during Sulla's proscriptions.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Perhaps one of the most unique eras in world history was the Enlightenment, a time period in which intellectuals like Voltaire, Adam Smith and Denis Diderot Ã¢â¬Å"Observed with unprecedented acuity the evils and flaws of human society in their dayÃ¢â¬ (Tignor, Adelman, Aron, Kotkin, March and, and, 621) and sought to change the worldview of their generation both socially and politically. Those intellectuals believed that by sharing an aspiration to spread knowledge, human judgments could resist ignorance. Today, the ideals of those Enlightenment thinkers have become the foundation of many, if not all human societies. The Enlightenment had a great impact on the world, especially on Europeans who were customary to old practices of fixed social hierarchies, in which the king held absolute power. The knowledge gained from this intellectual movement brought about many changes in society. Minority groups such as women Ã¢â¬Å"gained confidence in their own worthinessÃ¢â¬âto create art, to write books, to observe the world accurately, and perhaps even rule their statesÃ¢â¬ (Tignor, Adelman, Aron, Kotkin, Marchand, and, 619). The Enlightenment also paved the way for a newer approach towards the concept of human rights. Human beings were granted certain individual rights known as their Ã¢â¬Å"natural rightsÃ¢â¬ that was always convenient by law. Before the French Revolution, European cultures were restricted by Ã¢â¬Å"two major institutions: the Catholic and Protestant churches and the dynastic court systemsÃ¢â¬ (Tignor, Adelman, Aron, Kotkin, Marchand, 617) where individual rights were given based on social ranks. The Enlightenment influenced the concept of human rights in France in that society had a better awareness of their world, which contributed to the emergence of cultural ambitions such as women forming political clubs to debate for social and political equality. Traditional governing ideas were gradually replaced by new governing visions to protect the natural rights of citizens over the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s authority. For instance, prior Ã¢â¬Å"traditional Christian belief in original sin and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mysterious tamperings with natural forces and human eventsÃ¢â¬ (Tignor, Adelman, Aron, Kotkin, Marchand, 617) were abandoned. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens was also established, which helped changed the social and political structure of the country. Additionally, and perhaps the most influence the Enlightenment had on the concept of human rights in France was that it provided Ã¢â¬Å"freedom of religion, freedom of the press, no taxation without representation, elimination of excessive punishments, and various safeguards against arbitrary administrationÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 77). Having been greatly influenced by the American War of Independence, Ã¢â¬Å"French officers who served in North America arrived home fired by the ideals of liberty that they saw in action in the New WorldÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 13). French deputies met in 1789 with constitutional ideals adopted from Americans like Thomas Jefferson and George Mason, establishing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens in an effort to drive the Ã¢â¬Å"ideas of rights and liberties in a more universalistic directionÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 13). A more Universalistic direction basically meant replacing ideals of the old order with knowledge gained from the Enlightenment. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens empowered all French citizens with protected liberties and granted all men equality under the law. It also declared that the basis of all sovereignty rests most importantly in the nation. Additionally, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens not only grant these rights, but Ã¢â¬Å"trumpeted individual rights, the principle of equality and connected more closely the concept of the people with the nationÃ¢â¬ (Tignor, Adelman, Aron, Kotkin, Marchand, 647). It is obvious that the document had great significance. Prior to the declaration, political and social situations raised questions that were often left unanswered, usually sparking tensions between government and society. FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s government was based on the old order, a monarchy system in which feudalism was practiced and aristocratic values were vital. Under such system, Ã¢â¬Å"legitimacy depended on the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s will and maintenance of a historic order that granted privileges according to ranks and statusÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 15). The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens granted all people of the French society equality under the law, yet the content of those Ã¢â¬Å"true, inalienable natural rights of humanityÃ¢â¬ remained undefined (Hunt, 6). Several national assemblies were held, but not one of them acknowledged womenÃ¢â¬â¢s political rights. Rather, all of those assemblies dodged granting women equal political rights. Women were still forbidden Ã¢â¬Å"the rights to meet as a group, draft grievances, or voteÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 60). As a result, women, influenced by the declaration, debated for specific rights when Ã¢â¬Å"they saw the opening created by the convocation of the Estates General and hoped to make their claims for inclusion in the promised reformÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 60). Between 1790 and 1791, members of a group called Cercle Social, formed by agitated omen, campaigned for equal political rights. Their campaign exposed discrimination against women that denied them equal rights in marriage and education. In that same year (1791), female activist Marie Olympe De Gouges issued the Declaration of the Rights of women in an effort to prove that women had been excluded from the promises of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. In her declaration, she requested that Ã¢â¬Å"The law should be the general will. All citizenesses and citizens should take partÃ¢â¬ ¦in its formation. It must be the same for everyone. All citizenesses and citizens, being equal in its eyes, should be equally admissible to all public dignities, offices and employmentsÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 27). She argued that women and men were born equal in rights. Therefore, women should have all those rights that a man enjoys such as holding public offices. However, all of these actions of the Parisian women soon increased the National ConventionÃ¢â¬â¢s negativity towards women and their rights. From October 29-30, 1793, the National Convention held a discussion about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s political clubs and abolished all womenÃ¢â¬â¢s clubs. They claimed that women were Ã¢â¬Å"hardly capable of lofty conceptions and cogitationsÃ¢â¬ because Ã¢â¬Å"their body and social role made them unsuited for public affairsÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 29). Yet, they felt threatened by womenÃ¢â¬â¢s organized political activities. The Age of Enlightenment significantly changed the fundamentals of European cultures, and French society during the eighteenth century. It took them away from their rituals of the old regime where government was dominated by monarchy. It formulated ideas on how the churches and the dynastic court systems could be reformed. The Enlightenment also influenced the establishment of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. However, fundamental questions about rights especially that of women, remained unanswered. The declaration did little to change the inferior status of women. Ã¢â¬Å"None of the national assemblies ever considered legislation granting political rights to women (who could neither vote nor hold office), and on a few occasions on which the possibility arose, however tentatively, the deputies greeted it with widespread derision and incredulityÃ¢â¬ (Hunt, 27).
Friday, January 3, 2020
Electron affinity reflects the ability of an atom to accept an electron. It is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom. Atoms with stronger effective nuclear charge have greater electron affinity. The reaction that occurs when an atom takes an electron may be represented as: X eÃ¢ËâÃ Ã¢â â XÃ¢ËâÃ energy Another way to define electron affinity is as the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a singly charged negative ion: XÃ¢ËâÃ Ã¢â â X eÃ¢Ëâ Key Takeaways: Electron Affinity Definition and Trend Electron affinity is the amount of energy required to detach one electron from a negatively charged ion of an atom or molecule.It is indicated using the symbol Ea and is usually expressed in units of kJ/mol.Electron affinity follows a trend on the periodic table. It increases moving down a column or group and also increases moving from left to right across a row or period (except for the noble gases).The value may be either positive or negative. A negative electron affinity means energy must be input in order to attach an electron to the ion. Here, electron capture is an endothermic process. If electron affinity is positive, the process is exothermic and occurs spontaneously. Electron Affinity Trend Electron affinity is one of the trends that can be predicted using the organization of elements in the periodic table. Electron affinity increases moving down an element group (periodic table column).Electron affinity generally increases moving left to right across an element period (periodic table row). The exception is the noble gases, which are in the last column of the table. Each of these elements has a completely filled valence electron shell and an electron affinity approaching zero. Nonmetals typically have higher electron affinity values than metals. Chlorine strongly attracts electrons. Mercury is the element with atoms that most weakly attract an electron. Electron affinity is more difficult to predict in molecules because their electronic structure is more complicated. Uses of Electron Affinity Keep in mind, electron affinity values only apply to gaseous atoms and molecules because the electron energy levels of liquids and solids are altered by interaction with other atoms and molecules. Even so, electron affinity has practical applications. It is used to measure chemical hardness, a measure of how charged and readily polarized Lewis acids and bases are. Its also used to predict electronic chemical potential. The primary use of electron affinity values is to determine whether an atom or molecule will act as an electron acceptor or an electron donor and whether a pair of reactants will participate in charge-transfer reactions. Electron Affinity Sign Convention Electron affinity is most often reported in units of kilojoule per mole (kJ/mol). Sometimes the values are given in terms of magnitudes relative to each other. If the value of electron affinity or Eea is negative, it means energy is required to attach an electron. Negative values are seen for the nitrogen atom and also for most captures of second electrons. It can also be seen for surfaces, such as diamond. For a negative value, the electron capture is an endothermic process: EeaÃ Ã¢ËâÃâE(attach) The same equation applies if EeaÃ has a positive value. In this situation the change ÃâEÃ has a negative value and indicates an exothermic process. Electron capture for most gas atoms (except noble gases) releases energy and is exothermic. One way to remember capturing an electron has a negative ÃâEÃ is to remember energy is let go or released. Remember: ÃâEÃ and EeaÃ have opposite signs! Example Electron Affinity Calculation The electron affinity of hydrogen is ÃâH in the reaction: H(g) e- Ã¢â â H-(g); ÃâH -73 kJ/mol, so the electron affinity of hydrogen is 73 kJ/mol. The plus sign isnt cited, though, so the EeaÃ is simply written as 73 kJ/mol. Sources Anslyn, Eric V.; Dougherty, Dennis A.Ã (2006). Modern Physical Organic Chemistry. University Science Books. ISBN 978-1-891389-31-3.Atkins, Peter; Jones, Loretta (2010). Chemical Principles the Quest for Insight. Freeman, New York. ISBN 978-1-4292-1955-6.Himpsel, F.; Knapp, J.; Vanvechten, J.; Eastman, D. (1979). Quantum photoyield of diamond(111)Ã¢â¬âA stable negative-affinity emitter. Physical Review B. 20 (2): 624. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.20.624Tro, Nivaldo J. (2008). Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-100065-9.IUPAC (1997). Compendium of Chemical Terminology (2nd Ed.) (the Gold Book). doi:10.1351/goldbook.E01977
Thursday, December 26, 2019
BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Seventh Symphony showed the world not only what a nearly perfect musical composition sounds like, but also the sheer relevance and absolute importance of historical context in the perception of music. Written from 1811 to 1812, the piece has to this day remained one of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest works. Beethoven dedicated the symphony to Count Moritz von Fries, an aristocrat that frequently hosted Beethoven in his more than accommodating home. The premiere for the symphony was on December 8th, 1813 at a charity concert where the proceeds went to wounded Austrian and Hungarian soldiers from the battle of Hanau. The symphony was immediately popular, winning the admiration of critiques and audiences alike. Described as the most perfectÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦After underestimating the size of the French army, the allies retreated from Madrid and into a small town in western Spain called Ciudad Rodrigo. It was at this point that the French sustained a significa nt blow from the failed invasion attempt on Russia. As a result, Bonaparte withdrew a sizable portion of troops from the western peninsular war to replenish his primary army. Meanwhile the Duke took the time to reinforce the allied army, and began pushing the French forces out of Madrid. 105,000 allied soldiers met the largely demoralized French army of 60,000 at Vitoria. The Battle decisively ended the peninsular war and led to the eventual collapse of Napoleonic rule in Europe altogether. As did most people in Europe at the time, the inhabitants of Vienna despised Napoleon and the French in general. The victory at Vitoria therefore caused a universal sense of celebration and euphoria to spread throughout Vienna. Originally written for the panharmonicon, a large, automated organ capable of creating several different sound effects, WellingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"VictoryÃ¢â¬ was changed for the orchestra. A friend of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s, Johann Nepomuk Maelzle, an engineer best known for inventing the metronome, requested that he compose a piece that would commemorate the victory over Napoleon. Widely considered BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s worst piece: Ã¢â¬Å"a piece of startling crudity,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Battle SymphonyÃ¢â¬ premiered on DecemberShow MoreRelatedBeethoven, Symphony No. 92393 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBeethoven, Symphony No. 9 Ludwig Beethoven was not only one of the greatest composer musician ever born- he is a wonderful study tool for me during exam week. My faithful study partner was born in a small town, Bonn, Germany on December 16, 1770 to a family of professional musicians. Beethoven learned violin and some other instruments from his father. His father wanted him to be perfect in music, and in that endeavor he violently scolded Beethoven whenever he made any kind of mistake duringRead MoreReview Of Beethoven Symphony No. 9 1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ludwig van Beethoven once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Music, in truth, is the mediator between intellectual and sensual lifeÃ¢â¬ . Though he and his music were from an entirely different era, both still have relevance in our lives today. Music from the past is all around us on the radio, in commercials, and on the big screen. For example, one of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous symphonies, Ã¢â¬Å"Symphony No. 9Ã¢â¬ , makes an appearance in many movies. It eve n makes an appearance in Die Hard. Though we like to think that which is oldRead MoreBeethoven Concert Symphony No 61128 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages BEETHOVEN CONCERTS The Ã¢â¬Å"PastoraleÃ¢â¬ Symphony and the Ã¢â¬Å"EmperorÃ¢â¬ Piano Concerto, one named by Ludwig van Beethoven and the other by a friend, are splendid examples of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s musical acumen. These pieces are more formally known as BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Symphony No. 6 and Piano Concerto No. 5. This concert report will cover both pieces and will contain my impressions of each piece. Symphony No. 6 Ã¢â¬Å"PastoraleÃ¢â¬ was performed by the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen, and was conducted by Paavo JarviRead MoreBeethoven, Symphony No 3 ( Eroica )1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBeethoven, Symphony No. 3 (Eroica) Ludwig van Beethoven was one of the greatest composers and a musical genius. Beethoven was born on December 16, 1770 in Bonn, Germany and died on March 26, 1827 in Vienna, Austria. Beethoven came from a family of musicians just like many other great composers before him had. At the age of only 11 Beethoven began serving as an assistant to the court organist and had several published piano compositions at the age of 12. At the age of 18, he became the legal guardianRead MoreThe Footsteps Of Beethoven s Final Symphony1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Final Symphony. It is a very powerful film that illustrates the impact of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ninth Symphony on individuals from different places in the world. This film is not the type of documentary that I expected. It is one of the best film that I saw. Following the Ninth presents the significance of humanity. The director, Kerry Candaele acknowledged that it was the third movement of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s final symphony that drew him into BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s world. For me, BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s last symphony has the spiritualRead MoreEssay about Analysis of Beethoven Symphony 3 and Mozart Symphony 403307 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesBeethoven Symphony No. 3 and Mozart Symphony 40 Forms Sonata form is one of the more popular forms of music that is found in a variety of different works including symphonies, concertos, and sonatas. Sonata form features three distinct sections: the exposition, development, and recapitulation. Mozart was one of the early composers of this form of music. I will examine the clear distinctions between each section and how he does not stray from the typical form. In later years the form would changeRead MoreThe Fifth Symphony By Ludwig Van Beethoven1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgenre. My personal musical taste is a variety of genres and choosing the three pieces represents my musical mixture. The Fifth Symphony composed by Ludwig Van Beethoven is one of my favorite classical pieces. Beethoven was a famous deaf composer and the most leading influential musical figure in the Romantic era. The Fifth Symphony was written between 1804 and 1808. Beethoven held a concert to debut his pieces, but it did not go as well as planned. The audience was bored and tired from sitting in theRead MoreBiography Of Ludwig Van Beethoven s Symphonies1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Ludwig van BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s nine symphonies are indispensable pieces of music and contributed to him being referred to as one of the most famous musicians in all of musical history. His symphonies are still played today and are recognized around the world. He is known as a symphonic master due to his nine symphonies. Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer during the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s symphonies were greatly influenced by Haydn and Mozart inRead MoreThe Impact Of Beethoven On The Development Of The Symphony Until Mahler3555 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesDiscuss the impact of Beethoven on the development of the symphony until Mahler. Difficult as it may be to define the true relationship of an artist to his successors, this difficulty is enormously increased when the subject is as complex a man and musician as Beethoven. His role as both a Ã¢â¬Å"preserver of the eighteenth-century tradition1 and a pioneer of romantic self-expression, has secured his status as one of the most revered composers in the history of Western music. Throughout his symphonic cycleRead MoreBiography Of Ludwig Van Beethoven s Symphony1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLudwig Van Beethoven was a prolific musician of the 18th Century who, in all his time, composed nine symphonies, one opera, five piano concertos, thirty-two piano sonatas, and many other string quartets and hundreds of songs . Throughout this essay I shall be focusing on the symphony that after four years of hard work and plenty alterations , was brought to life and to this day is probably one of the best-known classical pieces: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor. This piece contains great e xamples of music